This map, also a reconstruction from a narrative, known as Ptolemy’s (AD 100-c 170) map, was put together following his important work, Geography, in which he described the world during his time. The map is oriented toward the north as constructed by its producers.

Ptolemy lived in Alexandria during its Roman period, he was a mathematician and astronomer and is credited with significant collection of information and innovation in understanding the globe. Significantly this early map shows knowledge of two extensive river systems in Africa, one the Nile and the other probably the Niger. This illustrates knowledge and familiarity with central and western Africa. The Indian Ocean appears as a lake similar to the Mediterranean, a lake surrounded by land. This departs from the Babylonian map on a tablet mentioned earlier and the descriptions of Herodotus and Strabo; it is also different from later Arab Maps that see the world surrounded by water.

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