This now famous map of the Antarctica is a source of speculation about ancient knowledge of the world and technologies that could date back to ancient time.
This map is representative of what medieval Europe knew of Arabia. The map gives the name of Arabia Deserta to Iraq and Arabia Felix to the Arabian Peninsula. The name Red Sea is given to the point where the Ocean begins at Bab al-Mandab and names of the tribes of Arabia are included in the text describing the map. Both…
The above is a “modern Mercator projection map” based on a map of 1569 by the Flemish Gerardus Mercator
Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) map of Asia, from his work, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, described as the first modern world atlas. https://archive.org/details/theatrumorbister00orte It shows a detailed Asia including Arabia. Herodotus had considered Arabia as part of Africa; some continued to place Arabia as part of Africa, but this began to disappear as time went by and Arabia was mapped into Asian maps consistently.
Placing Africa on top continued into the early modern period. Knowledge of its rivers and its constant integration in world maps tells of a different association, connections, and history of the African world with the rest of the world.
This map includes Arabia as part of Africa. The map is quite detailed, if somewhat inaccurate, but gives an idea of the greater knowledge gained about the continent early in the seventeenth century. http://www2.odl.ox.ac.uk/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=d-000-00—0mapsxx03–00-0-0-0prompt-10—4——0-1l–1-en-50—20-about—00001-001-1-1isoZz-8859Zz-1-0&a=d&c=mapsxx03&cl=CL2.1.3&d=mapsxx003-aau
Interactive map by Johannes van Keulen (1654-1715) exhibited as part of the map collection showed in “Maps of Africa: An Online Exhibit” a digital collection of African Maps at the Stanford University Libraries. The map is worth visiting, it is interactive and shows the lands bordering the Indian Ocean in great details, with names of territories and towns. https://exhibits.stanford.edu/maps-of-africa/catalog/zg066mg2041
“It began in the middle of the seventh century (650 A.D.) and survives till today in Mauritania and Sudan, summing up 14 centuries rather than four as for the Atlantic slave trade. Although estimates are very rough, figures are of 4,820,000 for the Saharan trade between 650 and 1600 A.D., and, for comparison purposes, of 2,400,000 for the Red Sea…
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